The History of Pontifex Maximus – Alpha to Omega


Posted by Phil Jayhan, March 14, 2007

Original Link:


Pontifex Maximus or Pope Seated on Satan’s Throne


The Babylonian pagan worship of Nimrod, Semiramis, and the god-incarnate son extended throughout the entire world and eventually assumed the name of Trinitarian Christianity in Rome (Figure 3, pages 24, 25). Trinitarian paganism spread from Babylon to Rome by way of Pergamum. The Babylon Kings, who were descended from Nimrod, served as both king and priest of the pagan Babylonian Mystery religion. As priests, they bore the title “Pontifex Maximus” 125 or “Supreme Pontiff,” meaning “supreme pathfinder” or “bridge maker,” representing “the path or connection between this life and the next.” 126 They ruled upon the throne of Satan, which is the throne of Nimrod as the “hidden god.” 127 The last king to reign in Babylon was Belshazzar, who celebrated the pagan Babylonian ritual using the sacred Jewish temple vessels which his father King Nebuchadnezzar confiscated from the Jewish temple in 587 B.C.:

King Belshazzar made a great feast for a thousand of his wine in front of the thousand.

Belshazzar, when he tasted the wine, commanded that the vessels of gold and of silver which Nebuchadnezzar his father had taken [in 587 B.C.] out of the temple in Jerusalem be brought, that the king and his lords, his wives, and his concubines might drink from them. Then they brought in the golden and silver vessels which had been taken out of the temple, the house of God in Jerusalem; and the king and his lords, his wives, and his concubines drank from them. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold and silver, bronze, iron, wood, and stone.

Immediately the fingers of a man’s hand appeared and wrote on the plaster of the wall of the king’s palace, opposite the lampstand; and the king saw the hand as it wrote. Then the king’s color changed, and his thoughts alarmed him; his limbs gave way, and his knees knocked together….

Then from his presence the hand was sent, and this writing was inscribed. And this is the writing that was inscribed: MENE, MENE, TEKEL, AND PARSIN. This is the interpretation of the matter: MENE, God has numbered the days of your kingdom and brought it to an end; TEKEL, you have been weighed in the balances and found wanting; PERES, your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians….

That very night Belshazzar the Chaldean king was slain. And Darius the Mede received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old.

– Prophet Daniel 128

After the death of Belshazzar in 539 B.C., the Persian Emperor Cyrus conquered Babylon and forced the Babylonian princes to flee to Pergamum. They continued their reign there as priest-kings of Babylonian paganism. 129 In 133 B.C., Attalus III, the last Babylonian King to rule in Pergamum, willed his dominions to the Roman Caesar, and the kingdom of Pergamum merged with the Roman Empire along with Satan-Nimrod’s throne and the title “Pontifex Maximus.” 130

In 63 B.C., Julius Caesar, who had been elected Pontifex Maximus, became emperor of Rome and vested the office of Roman emperor with the priestly powers and functions of the Babylonian Pontiff. 131 Henceforth, the title Pontifex Maximus was used by the Roman Caesars as illustrated on a Roman coin depicting the image of Augustus Caesar (27 B.C.-14 A.D.) with his title “Pont. Max.,” which is an abbreviation of Pontifex Maximus (Figure 4, page 26). Thus, the Roman emperors, like the preceding Babylonian emperors, now served as priests of Babylonian paganism, and bore the title Pontifex Maximus.

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For centuries, Pergamum remained the site of Nimrod’s throne. With the appearance of Christianity, Babylonian paganism threatened the early Christian church of Pergamum as related in the Revelation given by Jesus to His Apostle John, who referred to Pergamum as the seat of Satan’s throne which is Nimrod’s throne:

“And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: ‘The words of him who has the sharp two-edged sword.

“‘I know where you dwell, where Satan’s throne is [i.e., Nimrod’s Throne]; you hold fast my name and you did not deny my faith even in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells. But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam [pagan Babylonian trinity of Nimrod], who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice immorality.

– Apostle John 132

In 376 A.D., Gratian became the first Roman emperor to refuse the idolatrous title of Pontifex Maximus. 133 He presented the Babylonian Throne, or Satan-Nimrod’s Throne to the bishop of Rome. 134

By this time, the Roman bishops had advanced in political power, and in 378 A.D., Bishop Damasus was elected Pontifex Maximus, becoming the official pagan Babylonian priest seated on Satan’s throne in Rome. As such, the bishop converted the pagan Babylonian temples of Rome into Trinitarian Christian churches and introduced the worship of Nimrod, Semiramis and the god-incarnate son under the respective titles of “god the father,” “god the son” and “god the holy spirit.” All the pomp and ceremony that existed in ancient Babylon was now practiced as Roman Trinitarian Christianity.

Before the Babylonian conversion into Trinitarian Christianity, the early Christians were a small cult surrounded by numerous Babylonian pagan temples. Historians, however, relate the amazing “overnight” conversion of Romans to Trinitarian Christianity, which coincided to a remarkable and unprecedented disappearance of paganism. 135 In actuality, the Roman pagans did not convert to Trinitarian Christianity; but rather, Bishop Damasus exercised his authority as head of Babylonian paganism in Rome, and replaced all the Christian elders with pagan priests and continued the practice of the pagan Babylonian Mystery religion under the name of Trinitarian Christianity. Henceforth, all the bishops of Rome have donned the robes of Nimrod along with the title of Pontifex Maximus.

The Roman Catholic bishops were viewed by most Christians as head of Trinitarian Christianity, and entitled pope or “pater patrum” in Latin, that is, “father of the fathers,”136 despite the fact that Jesus the Christ forbid His followers to refer to anyone as father except for the heavenly Father:

But you are not to be called rabbi [Hebrew for master or teacher 137 ], for you have one teacher, and you are all brethren. And call no man your father [pope, derived from the Greek “papa” meaning father 138 ] on earth, for you have one Father, who is inheaven. Neither be called masters, for you have one master, the Christ.

– Jesus the Christ 139

Thus, like the Babylonian emperors and the Roman Caesars before them, the pagan Roman Catholic popes were seated on the throne of Satan, and possessed the title Pontifex Maximus 140 as displayed on a medal portraying Pope Leo X (1513-1521 A.D.) with the inscription “Pont. Max.” (Figure 4).

Further evidence supports the fact that the papal office is the pagan Babylonian priesthood. Roman Catholic popes not only bear the title Pontifex Maximus and are seated on Satan-Nimrod’s throne, but they also wear the scarlet robes of Nimrod and the miter of the fish-god Dagon, plus they carry the shepherd’s crook of Nimrod and the mystical keys of Janus and Cybele, who were the pagan god and goddess representing Nimrod and Semiramis respectively.141

The Roman bishops wore only white robes until they received Satan’s throne and the title Pontifex Maximus. 142 Roman Catholic popes and cardinals now wear the scarlet robes of Nimrod. The shepherd’s crook or crosier carried by the pope is the magical crook traced directly to Nimrod who was the first shepherd king. 143 The miter worn by the pope represents the mouth of a fish and was worn by the pagan Philistine fish-god Dagon, 144 which is another name for Nimrod (Figure 5, page 30). 145 Also, the tiara worn by the popes is identical in shape to that worn by the Philistine fish-god Nimrod. 146


125. The Two Babylons, pp. 240-252.

126. PONTIFEX MAXIMUS. Baker’s Pocket Dictionary of Religious Terms.

127. The Two Babylons, pp. 275, 276.

128. Daniel 5:1-30.

129. The Two Babylons, pp. 240, 241.

130. ibid, p. 241.

131. Babylon Mystery Religion, p. 80; The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 66, 67.

132. Revelation 2:12-17.

133. Babylon Mystery Religion, p. 80; The Two Babylons, pp. 238, 247-252.

134. The Two Babylons, pp. 247, 248.

135. ibid., pp. 250, 251.

136. Babylon Mystery Religion, p. 83; The Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10, p. 403.

137. RABBI. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary.

138. POPE. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary.

139. Matthew 23:8-10.

140. PONTIFEX MAXIMUS. Supreme Pathfinder … the pope. Baker’s Pocket Dictionary of Religious Terms.

141. Babylon Mystery Religion, pp. 83-90; The Two Babylons, pp. 206-218.

142. Babylon Mystery Religion, p. 111.

143. CROSIER. Baker’s Pocket Dictionary of Religious Terms; The Two Babylons, p. 217.

144. The Two Babylons, pp. 216, 217.

145. ibid., pp. 114, 215, 252.

146. ibid., pp. 216, 217.

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Posted by: Phil Jayhan, March 14th, 2007

Original link:

Pontifex Maximus

History of Pontifex MaximusHistory of Pontifex MaximusHistory of Pontifex Maximus

The History of the original Pagan Priesthood of the Holy Roman Empire

and the History of the Title

PONTIFEX. The collegium of the Pontifices was the most important priesthood of ancient Rome, being specially charged with the administration of the jus divinum, i.e. that part of the civil law which regulated the relations of the community with the deities recognized by the state officially, together with a general superintendence of the worship of gens and family. The name is clearly derived from “pans” and “facere”, but whether this should be taken as indicating any special connexion with the sacred bridge over the Tiber (Pans Sublicitis), or what the original meaning may have been, is difficult to determine.

The college existed under the monarchy, when its members were probably three in number; they may safely be considered as legal advisers of the Rex (King/Sovereign) in all matters of Pagan religion. Under the republic they emerge into prominence under a pontifex maximus, who took over the king’s duties as chief administrator of religious law, just as his chief sacrificial duties were taken by the rex sacrorum; his dwelling was the regia, ” the house of the king.”

During the republican period the number of pontifices increased, probably by multiples of three, until after Sulla (82 B.C.) we find them fifteen; for the year 57 B.C. we have a complete list of them in Cicero (Harusp. resp. 6, 12). Included in the collegium were also the rex sacrorum, the flamines, three assistant pontifices (minores), and the vestal virgins, who were all chosen by the pontifex maximus. Vacancies in the body of pontifices were originally filled by co-optation; but from the second Punic War onwards the pontifex maximus was chosen by a peculiar form of popular election, and in the last age of the republic this held good for all the members. They all held office for life – just like the Popes.

The immense authority of the college centred in the Pontifex Maximus, the other pontifices forming his consilium or advising body. His functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but these were the least important; the real power lay in the administration of the jus divinum, the chief departments of which may briefly be described as follows: (1) the regulation of all expiatory ceremonials needed as the result of pestilence, lightning, &c.; (2) the consecration of all pagan temples and other occult sacred places and objects dedicated to the pantheon of gods by the state through its magistrates; (3) the regulation of the calendar both astronomically and in detailed application to the public life of the state; (4) the administration of the law relating to burials and burying-places, and the worship of the Manes, or dead ancestors; (5) the superintendence of all marriages by confarreatio, i.e. originally of all legal patrician marriages; (6) the administration of the law of adoption and of testamentary succession. They had also the care of the state archives, of the lists of magistrates, and kept records of their own decisions (commentarii) and of the chief events of each year (annales).

It is obvious that a priesthood having such functions as these, and holding office for life, must have been a great power in the state, and for the first three centuries of the republic it is probable that the pontifex maximus was in fact its most powerful member. The office might be combined with a magistracy, and, though its powers were declaratory rather than executive, it may fairly be described as quasi-magisterial. Under the later republic it was coveted chiefly for the great dignity of the position; Julius Caesar held it for the last twenty years of his life, and Augustus took it after the death of Lepidus in 12 B.C., after which it became inseparable from the office of the reigning emperor. With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law closely resembled those of the ancient Roman priesthood, hence the modern use of ” pontiff ” and ” pontifical.”

For further details consult Marquardt, Staatsverwaltung, iii. 235 seq & Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der Romer, 430 seq.; Bouche-Leclercq, Les Pontifes, passim. (W. W. F.*). Also consult the early editions of Encyclopedia Britannica.

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Posted by: Phil Jayhan, March 14th, 2007

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Holy See


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Holy See
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Politics and government of
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The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, “holy seat”) is the episcopal see of Rome. The incumbent of the see is the Bishop of Rome — the Pope. The term Holy See, as used in Canon law, also refers to the Pope and the Roman Curia—in effect, the central government of the Catholic Church—and is the sense more widely used today.

The Holy See is also called “the Apostolic See”. While “Apostolic See” can refer to any see founded by any of the Apostles, the term is in this case used to refer to the see of the bishop seen as the successor of the chief of the Apostles, Saint Peter.

Aside from Rome, the archiepiscopal See of Mainz, which was also of electoral and primatial rank, is the only other see referred to as the “Holy See,” although this usage is less common.




Organization of the Holy See

The Pope governs the Church through the Roman Curia. The Roman Curia consists of the Secretariat of State, nine Congregations, three Tribunals, 11 Pontifical Councils, and a complex of offices that administer church affairs at the highest level. The Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State, directs and coordinates the Curia. The current incumbent, Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone, is the Holy See’s equivalent of a prime minister. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, Secretary of the Section for Relations With States of the Secretariat of State acts as the Holy See’s foreign minister. Bertone and Mamberti have been named in their respective roles under by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006.

Among the most active of the major Curial institutions are the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which oversees church doctrine; the Congregation for Bishops, which coordinates the appointment of bishops worldwide; the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, which oversees all missionary activities; and the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, which deals with international peace and social issues.

Three tribunals are responsible for judicial power. The Sacra Rota is responsible for normal appeals, including decrees of nullity for marriages, with the Apostolic Signatura being the administrative court of appeal and highest ecclesiastical court. The Apostolic Penitentiary is different from those two and, instead of dealing with contentious cases, issues absolutions, dispensations, and indulgences.

The Prefecture for Economic Affairs coordinates the finances of the Holy See departments and supervises the administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, an investment fund dating back to the Lateran Pacts. A committee of 15 cardinals, chaired by the Secretary of State, has final oversight authority over all financial matters of the Holy See, including those of the Institute for Works of Religion, the Vatican bank. The Prefecture for the Pontifical Household is responsible for papal ceremonies and the daily work and life of the Pope.

Like any episcopal see, the Holy See does not dissolve upon the death or resignation of the reigning Pope. It instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. During this interregnum, the heads of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia (such as the prefects of congregations) cease to hold office immediately, the only exceptions being the Major Penitentiary, who continues his important role regarding absolutions and dispensations, and the Cardinal Camerlengo, who administers the temporalities (i.e., properties and finances) of the Holy See during this period. The government of the Holy See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, then falls to the College of Cardinals. Canon Law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period.

Diplomacy of the Holy See


Foreign relations with the Holy See ██ diplomatic relations ██ other relations


Foreign relations with the Holy See ██ diplomatic relations ██ other relations

Since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome has been recognized as a sovereign entity. The Holy See maintains formal diplomatic relations with 175 sovereign states [1], the European Union, and the Order of Malta; 69 of these maintain permanent resident diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See in Rome. The rest have missions with dual accreditation outside Italy, as the Holy See does not accept dual accreditation with an embassy located in Italy. It also has relations of a special nature with Russia (Mission with an Ambassador) and the Palestine Liberation Organization (Office with a Director). The Holy See maintains 179 permanent diplomatic missions abroad (106 of which are accredited to sovereign states). The diplomatic activities of the Holy See are performed by the Secretariat of State (headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State), through the Section for Relations with States.

The Holy See has the oldest continuous diplomatic service in the world tracing its origins to at least AD 325 from its original legation to the First Council of Nicea.

The Holy See is the only European subject of international law to formally recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan). It is the longest lasting diplomatic ally of the ROC, having held official relations since 1942, before relocation of its government from Nanking to Taipei. Talks between the mainland People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Holy See on diplomatic recognition have been ongoing, with the main issue the treatment of Chinese Catholics in mainland China. The People’s Republic of China government controls a Chinese Catholic Association which does not recognize the authority of Rome and the People’s Republic of China has officially banned the underground Catholic Church which recognizes the Holy See’s authority.

International organizations

The Holy See is especially active in international organizations and is a member of the following groups:

  • Note: In 1971, the Holy See announced the decision to adhere to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in order to “give its moral support to the principles that form the base of the treaty itself.”

The Holy See is also a permanent observer of the following groups:

  • Note: the Holy See is a permanent observer in the United Nations and, in July 2004, gained all the rights of full membership except voting. According to Archbishop Celestino Migliore, Holy See Permanent Observer, “We have no vote because this is our choice.” He added that the Holy See considers that its current status “is a fundamental step that does not close any path for the future. The Holy See has the requirements defined by the UN statute to be a member state and, if in the future it wished to be so, this resolution would not impede it from requesting it.”

The Holy See is an observer on an informal basis of the following groups:

The Holy See sends a delegate to the Arab League in Cairo. It is also a guest of honour to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Coöperation in Europe.

Relationship with the Vatican City and other territories

Although the Holy See is closely associated with the Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See is sovereign, the two entities are separate and distinct. After the Italian takeover of the Papal States in 1870, there was some uncertainty among jurists as to whether the Holy See, without territorial sovereignty, could continue to act as an independent personality in international matters. A number of countries – mostly Catholic nations plus the notable powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria-Hungary – did recognize Vatican sovereignty, but most nations did not.

The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 to “insure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See” and “to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs” (quotations from the treaty). Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, the Holy See’s former Secretary for Relations with States, said that the Vatican City is a “minuscule support-state that guarantees the spiritual freedom of the Pope with the minimum territory”. [1]

The Holy See, not the Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states (such as with the United Kingdom), and participates in international organizations. Foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See rather than to the Vatican City, and it is the Holy See that establishes treaties and concordats with other sovereign entities. When necessary, the Holy See will enter a treaty on behalf of the Vatican City.

Under the terms of the Lateran Treaty, the Holy See has extraterritorial authority over 23 sites in Rome and five Italian sites outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo.[2] The same authority is extended under international law over the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in a foreign country.

See also


  1. ^ Holy See Press Office
  2. ^ CIA – The World Factbook — Holy See (Vatican City). Central Intelligence Agency (200612-19). Retrieved on 200701-03.

Further reading


  • La Due, William J. The Chair of Saint Peter: A History of the Papacy. (ISBN 1-57075-249-4)

External links

v d e

Foreign relations of Europe[hide]

Dependencies, autonomies and other territories
Abkhazia1 · Adjara1 · Åland · Akrotiri and Dhekelia · Crimea · Faroe Islands · Gibraltar · Guernsey · Isle of Man · Jersey · Kosovo · Nagorno-Karabakh1 · Nakhichevan1 · Transnistria · Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus2, 3

1 Has significant territory in Asia. 2 Entirely in West Asia, but considered European for cultural, political and historical reasons. 3 Only recognised by Turkey.


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6 Responses to The History of Pontifex Maximus – Alpha to Omega

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  5. Timothy Low says:

    Err isn’t the information very biased and misconstrued? I mean you phrase the terms with very subjective adjectives. Additionally, while Pontifex Maximus was a term used in pagan Rome, simply because a Christian leader takes on the role, it does not make him a servant of Satan. You also misinterpret the bible, for example, Matthew 23 Verse 9 (ref 139) where it is truly meant thusly: What was meant was to warn men against so recognizing, in any case, the fatherhood of men as to forget the Fatherhood of God. Even the teacher and apostle, who is a father to others, needs to remember that he is as a “little child” in the relation to God. (Comp. St. Paul’s claim in 1Corinthians 4:15.). This was said by Christ to rebuke the Rabbis of Jerusalem who were expected to be revered instead of God, during the time of Apostate Jerusalem. You have to quote and interpret in context. By making this post you are misrepresenting information and this is dangerous, as it may make people believe in potentially false reasonings and facts. If the Pope is evil for being called Pont. Max, then surely you carry your father’s sins? But this is not the case, as in the Bible, the only sin a child is born with is original sin, the sin of hubris and rebellion against the Lord’s wishes. And at any rate Purple and Red were declared Liturgical colours by God in Leviticus, so it is not wrong or Satan-like for Popes and the cardinals to wear it. The colours also take on additional meaning: Purple for repentance and Red to honour the blood of Christian martyrs spilt in ages past. Additionally, the term Father in early Christian communities was used as you’d be exiled from your family for accepting Christ in the time of Pagan Rome and your new family would be the Christians whom you would join. So your elders would literally be like your Father, Mother and your brethren, Brother and Sister. So it’s not wrong to honour the early Christian practices by calling the Pope the Pope, as he acts as a father to his people.

  6. jeremiah mills says:

    I was very surprised to see someone speaking of the “trinity” accurately. Most people have no idea what “on earth as it is in heaven means.” From Genesis 1:1 down to “the Lord’s Prayer” to the kingdom of Yaweh being within us. Most people have, sadly, just subscribed to whatever men say and are not familiarized with scripture. Birth from above is Jesus Christ (Yaweh incarnated) giving His people those heavenly gifts of repentance, spirit baptism, and freedom from spiritual prison. Theophilus (not the one mentioned in luke 1 and acts 1) , Tertulliun, and St. Augustine had the biggest hands in developing the Doctrine (dogma) of the Trinity. The mark of the beast as explained under charagma, in the Theological Dictionary of The New Testament by Gerhard Kittel, is the so called “church” getting stamps of approval from a “man” king. I would love to create a list of verses that say YAWEH IS YOUR KING! All of 1 Sam 8; 1 Sam 12:12 &17; Psalm 2; Mark 10:42-45 and Revelation 1 and 5 and 1 Pet 2 all say that we are KINGS and PRIESTS – A ROYAL PRIESTHOOD. Jesus in John 10 explains that if the Word of God has come to you – the scripture cannot be broken – reference to Psalm 82 – then we are gods (judges and magistrates, Matt 7 and John 7. Judge righteous judgement. Great research and great post. Praise God! I have a website that I do work like this as well. It is and I have a youtube channel called “Driven Assembly.”

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